A reduced scoring system for the Clock Drawing Test using a population-based sample.
Summary of "A reduced scoring system for the Clock Drawing Test using a population-based sample."
ABSTRACTBackground: Many scoring systems exist for clock drawing task variants, which are common dementia screening measures, but all have been derived from clinical samples. This study evaluates and combines errors from two published scoring systems for the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), the Lessig and Tuokko methods, in order to create a simple yet optimal scoring procedure to screen for dementia using a Canadian population-based sample.Methods: Clock-drawings from 356 participants (80 with dementia, 276 healthy controls) from the Canadian Study on Health and Aging were analyzed using logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves to determine a new, simplified, population-based CDT scoring system. The new Jouk scoring method was then compared to other commonly used systems (e.g. Shulman, Tuokko, Watson, Wolf-Klein).Results: The Jouk scoring system reduced the Lessig system even further to include five critical errors: missing numbers, repeated numbers, number orientation, extra marks, and number distance, and produced a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 68% with a cut-off score of one error. With regard to other traditionally used scoring methods, the Jouk procedure had one of the most balanced sensitivities/specificities when using a population-based sample.Conclusions: The results from this study improve our current state of knowledge concerning the CDT by validating the simplified scoring system proposed by Lessig and her colleagues in a more representative sample to mimic conditions a general clinician or researcher will encounter when working among a wide-ranging population and not a dementia/memory clinic. The Jouk CDT scoring system provides further evidence in support of a simple and reliable dementia-screening tool that can be used by clinicians and researchers alike.
Department of Psychology and Centre on Aging, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International psychogeriatrics / IPA
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22651993
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212000804
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Holtzman Inkblot Test
Personality evaluation based on the scoring of several variables as a result of the subject's responses in perceiving 47 inkblot plates.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
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