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Sling surgery has supplanted other anti-incontinence procedures as the treatment of choice for stress urinary incontinence. Iatrogenic obstruction after sling surgery is increasingly reported as the procedure becomes more and more popular. The rate of retention (defined as catheter-dependency for at least 28 days) has been estimated at 1-10%. Iatrogenic obstruction after sling surgery has a variable presentation and can include urinary urgency, urgency incontinence, hesitancy, straining to void, weak urinary stream, nocturia, incomplete emptying, frequency, dysuria or urinary tract infections. The evaluation and diagnosis rely upon a thorough patient history, physical examination, a urine flow test and postvoid residual volume. Cystoscopy and pressure-flow studies can also be considered. The single most important factor in the diagnosis of sling-related obstruction or voiding dysfunction is the temporal relationship between the sling procedure and onset of symptoms. Transient urinary retention can be managed with indwelling or intermittent catheter drainage. For those patients with moderate or symptomatic retention, surgical options for treatment include sling loosening, sling incision, sling excision, and urethrolysis.
Virginia Mason Medical Center, Section of Urology and Renal Transplantation, C7-URO, 1100 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Urology
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Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, cardiac rate changes, and bronchial spasms.
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