Does Long-Term Medication Use Improve the Academic Outcomes of Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?
Summary of "Does Long-Term Medication Use Improve the Academic Outcomes of Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?"
Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently experience academic impairment, including lower grades than their peers and elevated risk for grade retention and school dropout. Medication is the most commonly used treatment for youth with ADHD, and it is therefore essential to understand the extent to which medication use improves long-term academic functioning. This paper reviews the literature on the relation between long-term medication use and the academic outcomes of youth with ADHD. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify pertinent studies published since 2000 that followed youth with ADHD for 3 or more years. Academic outcomes of interest included school grades, achievement test scores, and grade retention. Nine studies were identified reporting on eight distinct longitudinal samples (N across studies = 8,721). These studies demonstrate that long-term medication use is associated with improvements in standardized achievement scores. However, the magnitude of these improvements is small and the clinical or educational significance is questionable. Evidence for long-term improvements in school grades and grade retention is less compelling. This review highlights methodological considerations in providing directions for future research. The importance of using multiple sources to gather information about medication adherence is discussed, including use of methodologies such as electronic monitors, rather than relying solely on parent report or chart review. Future research should also examine a range of medication adherence definitions in order to determine whether age of onset, duration of use, dose, and/or consistency of use moderates the relation between long-term medication use and academic outcomes.
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical child and family psychology review
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678357
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-012-0117-8
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Medication Therapy Management
Assistance in managing and monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving treatment for cancer or chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, consulting with patients and their families on the proper use of medication; conducting wellness and disease prevention programs to improve public health; overseeing medication use in a variety of settings.
Insurance, Long-term Care
Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.
Hiv Long-term Survivors
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Long-term Synaptic Depression
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the US. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Pre...
The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant symptoms) to serotonin reuptake...
Objective: A long-term medication adherence project was designed and implemented in an urban HIV clinic to address antiretroviral medication adherence. Design and Methods: We conducted a prospective s...
Although psychometrically-defined executive function deficits (EFDs) and ecologically valid functional outcomes have been documented among youth with bipolar I (BP-I) disorder, little is known about t...
Although research suggests that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit specific deficits in their high cognitive processes, it is still unknown how these deficits relate...
The purpose of this study is to develop, standardize and provide a preliminary test of a novel intervention for preadolescent maltreated youth in out-of-home care. It is hypothesized that...
Taking anti-HIV medication consistently and properly is a critical issue for patients with HIV. Drug regimens are complex; when regimens are not taken properly, HIV can become resistant t...
To investigate neurocognitive and behavioral measures in 25 children aged 6-10 years diagnosed with diabetes for > 5 years who have received long-term insulin pump therapy (> 3 years) comp...
Many smokers fail to take their smoking cessation medication as recommended. This research is designed to identify treatments that improve the use of cessation medications and to determin...