Virulence genes and pathogenicity islands in environmental Vibrio strains non-pathogenic to humans.
Summary of "Virulence genes and pathogenicity islands in environmental Vibrio strains non-pathogenic to humans."
Most Vibrio species in autochthonous marine microflora, such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum among others, are considered non- pathogenic for humans. However, because many bacterial virulence genes are located in mobile genetic elements, the acquisition of mobile DNA could mediate the appearance of virulent or more virulent strains even in a species defined as non-pathogenic. In this study, we screened a collection of marine non-pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated in the area of the Venetian Lagoon for the presence of virulence and fitness genes usually present in V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus clinical isolates. More than one third of the strains tested positive for the presence of at least one of the potential virulence/fitness genes with the gene encoding the V. cholerae neuraminidase the most frequently detected. Moreover, 13 of the environmental strains carried modified versions of the V. cholerae pathogenicity island VPI-2 and four of them also contained partial fragments of the V. parahaemolyticus Vp-PAI. The data obtained support the view of non-pathogenic Vibrio strains as a significant reservoir of virulence and fitness genes. The emergence of environmental bacteria with new virulence traits might constitute a direct concern for public health and a risk for human health. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dipartimento di Patologia e Diagnostica, Sezione di Microbiologia, Università di Verona, Italy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEMS microbiology ecology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676367
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01427.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Vibrio Cholerae O1
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Vibrio Cholerae O139
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
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