Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.
Summary of "Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review."
Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur , Kharagpur , India.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in biotechnology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676042
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2012.672319
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.
Lipoprotein Lipase Activators
Compounds that increase the enzymatic activity of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Lipoprotein lipase activators have a potential role in the treatment of OBESITY by increasing LIPID METABOLISM. Note that substances that increase the synthesis of lipoprotein lipase are not included here.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I
An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.
Lipases (triacylglycerolacyl hydrolases, EC184.108.40.206) are class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. In this review paper, an overview regarding the fungal lipase produc...
The study demonstrates the production of lipase (LIP) from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid as the substrate for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipase was pur...
Candida rugosa lipase was encapsulated within a sol-gel procedure and improved considerably by fluoride-catalyzed hydrolysis of mixtures of octyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane in the presence o...
ABSTRACT: The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized...
Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification...
The purpose of the study is to determine whether castor oil is effective in inducing labor.
This trial is designed to expand the currently available data on the safety and efficacy of alipogene tiparvovec treatment in lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD) and to further the unders...
The objective of this work is to evaluate, from volunteers viewpoint, the usability, comfort, appearance, weight, superficial temperature, and other characteristics of a polymeric plate de...
There has been considerable international /national interest in the GEM−P regimen for treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Currently, there is no accepted standard th...
To determine the contribution of polymorphic variation in candidate genes involved in lipid metabolism in determining quantitative lipoprotein-lipid levels and cardiovascular risk factors...