Endothelial differentiation by multipotent fetal mouse lung mesenchymal cells.
Summary of "Endothelial differentiation by multipotent fetal mouse lung mesenchymal cells."
During fetal lung development, cells within the mesenchyme differentiate into vascular endothelia. This process of vasculogenesis gives rise to the cells that will eventually form the alveolar capillary bed. The cellular mechanisms regulating lung vasculogenesis are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of experimental systems that model this process. Here, we have developed and characterized a novel fetal mouse lung cell model of mesenchymal to endothelial differentiation. Using mesenchymal cells from the lungs of embryonal day 15 Immortomice, we show that endothelial growth media containing fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor can stimulate formation of vascular endothelial cells in culture. These newly formed endothelial cells retain plasticity, as removing endothelial growth media causes loss of vascular markers and renewed formation of α-smooth muscle actin positive stress fibers. Cells with the highest Flk-1 expression differentiated into endothelia more efficiently. Individual mesenchymal cell clones had varied ability to acquire an endothelial phenotype. These fetal lung mesenchymal cells were multipotent, capable of differentiating into not only vascular endothelia, but also osteogenic and chondrongenic cell lineages. Our data establish a cell culture model for mesenchymal to endothelial differentiation that could prove useful for future mechanistic studies in the process of vasculogenesis both during normal development and in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease.
Division of Neonatology, Departments of Pediatrics and Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine , Nashville, Tennessee.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Stem cells and development
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22008017
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2011.0219
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Epidermal Growth Factor
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A mixed tumor of odontogenic origin, in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibit complete differentiation, resulting in the formation of tooth structures. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Cells that can develop into distinct mesenchymal tissue such as BONE; TENDONS; MUSCLES; ADIPOSE TISSUE; CARTILAGE; NERVE TISSUE; and BLOOD and BLOOD VESSELS.
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