The proton pump inhibitor test and the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Summary of "The proton pump inhibitor test and the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease."
There continues to be significant controversy related to diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Symptoms of GERD may be associated with physiologic esophageal acid exposure measured by intraesophageal pH monitoring or pH-impedance monitoring, and a significant percentage of patients with abnormal esophageal acid (or weak acid) exposure have no or minimal clinical symptoms of reflux. On the other hand, endoscopic lesions are only present in a minority of GERD patients. In clinical practice, presumptive diagnosis of GERD is reasonably assumed by the substantial reduction or elimination of suspected reflux symptoms during the therapeutic trial of acid reduction therapy, the so-called proton pump inhibitor (PPI) test. We aimed to assess the optimal cutoff value and duration of this test in GERD patients with and without esophagitis. We conducted a prospective study of 544 patients, endoscopically investigated and treated for 2 weeks with PPIs at double dose, and for an additional 3 months at standard dose. The status of the patient at the end of the study was used as an independent diagnostic standard. We found esophagitis present in 55.8% and absent in 44.2% of patients (corresponding to a diagnosis of nonerosive reflux disease [NERD]). The test was positive in 89.7-97.8% of the patients according to the cutoff or duration of the test used. The sensitivity of the PPI test was excellent, ranging from 95.5 to 98.8%, whereas the specificity was poor, not exceeding 36.3%. Erosive esophagitis patients responded more favorably to the PPI test and subsequent PPI therapy compared with NERD patients. In conclusion, the PPI test is a sensitive but less specific test. Its optimal duration is 1 week, and the optimal cutoff value is a decrease of heartburn score of more than 75%. NERD patients respond less satisfactorily to PPIs, even when functional heartburn patients are excluded and only 'true' NERD patients are considered.
Department of Clinical Sciences, 'L. Sacco', University of Milan, Milan, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Chronic ESOPHAGITIS characterized by esophageal mucosal EOSINOPHILIA. It is diagnosed when an increase in EOSINOPHILS are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS treatment, unlike in GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE. The symptoms are associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens.
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A highly effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase (H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE) in the proton pump of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
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