Identification of mineral deposits in the brain on radiological images: a systematic review.
Summary of "Identification of mineral deposits in the brain on radiological images: a systematic review."
MRI has allowed the study of mineral deposition in the brain throughout life and in disease. However, studies differ in their reporting of minerals on MRI for reasons that are unclear.
We conducted a systematic review from 1985 to July 2011 to determine the appearance of iron, calcium, copper and manganese on MRI and CT and their reliability. We assessed which imaging investigations provided the most consistent results compared with histology.
Of 325 papers on minerals imaging, we included 46 studies that confirmed findings either directly or indirectly using a non-imaging method such as histology. Within this group, there was inconsistency in the identification of iron probably because of changes in its paramagnetic properties during its degradation. Iron appeared consistently hypointense only on T2*-weighted MRI, and along with calcified areas, hyperattenuated on CT. Appearance of copper, calcium and manganese, although consistently reported as hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI, was confirmed histologically in few studies. On T2-weighted imaging, calcified areas were always reported as hypointense, while the appearance of iron depended on the concentration, location and degradation stage.
More work is required to improve the reliability of imaging methods to detect and differentiate brain mineral deposition accurately. KEY POINTS : • There is inconsistency in reporting the appearance of minerals on radiological images. • Only 46 studies confirmed mineral appearance using a non-imaging method. • Iron is the mineral more widely studied, consistently hypointense on T2*-weighted MRI. • T1-weighted MRI consistently reported copper, calcium and manganese hyperintense. • Calcium is consistently reported hypointense on T2-weighted MRI and hyperattenuating on CT.
Brain Research Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European radiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688125
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-012-2494-2
It has been just over a century since Gestalt psychologists described the factors that contribute to the holistic processing of visually presented stimuli. Recent research indicates that holistic proc...
Brain tumors can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and fin...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition that is often complicated by neuropsychiatric sequelae that can have major impacts on function and quality of life. An alteration in the sense of sme...
Lesions of the corpus callosum (CC) are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, tumours, demyelinating diseases, trauma and infections. In some diseases, CC...
Parkinson's disease (PD) and osteoporosis are chronic diseases associated with increasing age. Single studies have reported associations between them and the major consequence, namely, increased risk...
Gliomas are one of the most challenging tumors to treat, because areas of the apparently normal brain contain microscopic deposits of glioma cells; indeed, these occult cells are known to...
The purpose of this study is to look at the safety (what are the side effects) and efficacy (how well does it work) of Gadovist when used for taking images of the brain and spine. The res...
Elderly patients have a higher risk of experiencing adverse drug events due to an age related increase in morbidity and medication use. Inappropriate or wrong medication use among elderly...
With the number of individuals becoming overweight or obese, healthcare professionals are in need of accurate, reliable, and convenient tools to help personalize weight loss programs. Rece...
This study will identify genes and proteins in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis and in that of normal volunteers. The findings will be compared to determine the influence of thes...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.