Regulation of thyroid hormone sensitivity by differential expression of the thyroid hormone receptor during Xenopus metamorphosis.
Summary of "Regulation of thyroid hormone sensitivity by differential expression of the thyroid hormone receptor during Xenopus metamorphosis."
During amphibian metamorphosis, a series of dynamic changes occur in a predetermined order. Hind limb morphogenesis begins in response to low levels of thyroid hormone (TH) in early prometamorphosis, but tail muscle cell death is delayed until climax, when TH levels are high. It takes about 20 days for tadpoles to grow from early prometamorphosis to climax. To study the molecular basis of the timing of tissue-specific transformations, we introduced thyroid hormone receptor (TR) expression constructs into tail muscle cells of Xenopus tadpoles. The TR-transfected tail muscle cells died upon exposure to a low level of thyroxine (T4). This cell death was suggested to be mediated by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) that converts T4 to T3-the more active form of TH. D2 mRNA was induced in the TR-overexpressing cells by low levels of TH. D2 promoter contains a TH-response element (TRE) with a lower affinity for TR. These results show that the TR transfection confers the ability to respond to physiological concentrations of TH at early prometamorphosis to tail muscle cells through D2 activity and promotes TH signaling. We propose the positive feedback loop model to amplify the cell's ability to respond to low levels of T4.
Division of Embryology and Genetics, Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, 739-8526, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22686326
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2012.01614.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
Receptors, Thyroid Hormone
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
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