Left Atrial Function during Pregnancy: A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study.
Summary of "Left Atrial Function during Pregnancy: A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study."
Background: Alteration of diastolic function is considered a sensitive means for detecting changes in the normal cardiac adaptation to pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate volumetric and functional atrial parameters, using real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in women in early and late third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: We studied pregnant women in early third trimester (III-E = gestational age 26-33 weeks), in late third trimester (III-L = gestational age 34-40 weeks), and control nonpregnant women (C). Two-dimensional (2D-Echo) and RT3DE were used to study 3D left atrial (LA) systolic and diastolic stroke volumes and index (LASVI, LAEDVI), emptying fraction, left ventricular and LA cavities. Results: Although the LA end systolic volume index increased significantly (from 19.42 ± 0.1 to 24.7 ± 3.5 mm(2) , P < 0.01), the EF did not change significantly. This was mainly achieved by increasing atrial contraction (A-wave), maintaining cardiac output by increasing heart rate. A decrease in diastolic E-wave, increased atrial kick (A-wave) with reduced E/A ratio, was noted as the pregnancy progressed. Pulmonary pressure increased from 16.9 ± 6.6 to 20.5 ± 2.9 mmHg (P < 0.01), Using 2D-Echo revealed no change in LA diameter from control to III-E and III-L, respectively (from 17.1 ± 2.3 to 16.7 ± 2.6, 17.5 ± 2.2 mm) and area (from 11.7 ± 3.1 to 16.5 ± 2.3, 17.6 ± 1.6 cm(2) ). However, using RT3DE, a significant increase in the LASVI, LAEDVI, and LA stroke volume index (from 12.02 ± 2.5 to 14.7 ± 3.2, and 15.1 ± 2.7 mL/m(2) ) was detected. Conclusions: Enlargement of the LA volume with unchanged blood pressure values, as found using RT3DE, may be part of the adaptation to increased blood volume during pregnancy. (Echocardiography, 2012;**:1-6).
Department of Cardiology Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Barzilai Medical Center Campus, Ben-Gurion University, Ashkelon, Israel.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22694148
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8175.2012.01745.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Atrial Function, Left
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
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