Effects of MDMA alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin on pupillary light reflex.
Summary of "Effects of MDMA alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin on pupillary light reflex."
Pupillometry can be used to characterize autonomic drug effects.
This study was conducted to determine the autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), administered alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin, on pupillary function.
Infrared pupillometry was performed in five placebo-controlled randomized studies. Each study included 16 healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) who received placebo-MDMA (125 mg), placebo-placebo, pretreatment-placebo, or pretreatment-MDMA using a crossover design.
MDMA produced mydriasis, prolonged the latency, reduced the response to light, and shortened the recovery time. The impaired reflex response was associated with subjective, cardiostimulant, and hyperthermic drug effects and returned to normal within 6 h after MDMA administration when plasma MDMA levels were still high. Mydriasis was associated with changes in plasma MDMA concentration over time and longer-lasting. Both reboxetine and duloxetine interacted with the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Clonidine did not significantly reduce the mydriatic effects of MDMA, although it produced miosis when administered alone. Carvedilol and doxazosin did not alter the effects of MDMA on pupillary function.
The MDMA-induced prolongation of the latency to and reduction of light-induced miosis indicate indirect central parasympathetic inhibition, and the faster recovery time reflects an increased sympathomimetic action. Both norepinephrine and serotonin mediate the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Although mydriasis is lasting and mirrors the plasma concentration-time curve of MDMA, the impairment in the reaction to light is associated with the subjective and other autonomic effects of MDMA and exhibits acute tolerance.
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Departments of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 2, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22700038
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-012-2761-6
Drug discrimination studies have suggested that the subjective effects of low doses of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are readily differentiated from those of d-amphetamine (AMPH) and t...
MDMA, an addictive psychostimulant-consumed worldwide, has the ability to induce neurotoxic effects and addiction in laboratory animals and in humans through its effects on monoaminergic systems. MDMA...
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug which causes long-term neurotoxicity and increased risk of fatality. In rats, MDMA toxicity is exacerbated by co-admini...
3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), a primary metabolite of MDMA, are phenylethylamine derivatives that cause serotonergic neurotoxicity. Althou...
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit phenethylamine ingested for entactogenic and euphoric effects. Although blood is more commonly submitted for forensic analysis, previous human MD...
The purpose of this study is to determinate the effect of a pre-treatment with the combined serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transport blocker duloxetine on the pharmacodynamics an...
The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA (particularly its emotional effects) and to determine the role of serotonin in these effects. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, w...
This study was designed to determine if the novel combination of the SSRI, sertraline, and the NRI reboxetine will increase antidepressant efficacy without sacrificing the favorable safety...
MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, "Ecstasy") produces tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, and other acute adverse effects. Ecstasy use has also been associated with rare cardio...
The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA on sleep, mood, thinking, and how your body retains water. The researchers are interested in the effects that occur a few hour...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.