Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Pupillometry can be used to characterize autonomic drug effects.
This study was conducted to determine the autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), administered alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin, on pupillary function.
Infrared pupillometry was performed in five placebo-controlled randomized studies. Each study included 16 healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) who received placebo-MDMA (125 mg), placebo-placebo, pretreatment-placebo, or pretreatment-MDMA using a crossover design.
MDMA produced mydriasis, prolonged the latency, reduced the response to light, and shortened the recovery time. The impaired reflex response was associated with subjective, cardiostimulant, and hyperthermic drug effects and returned to normal within 6 h after MDMA administration when plasma MDMA levels were still high. Mydriasis was associated with changes in plasma MDMA concentration over time and longer-lasting. Both reboxetine and duloxetine interacted with the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Clonidine did not significantly reduce the mydriatic effects of MDMA, although it produced miosis when administered alone. Carvedilol and doxazosin did not alter the effects of MDMA on pupillary function.
The MDMA-induced prolongation of the latency to and reduction of light-induced miosis indicate indirect central parasympathetic inhibition, and the faster recovery time reflects an increased sympathomimetic action. Both norepinephrine and serotonin mediate the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Although mydriasis is lasting and mirrors the plasma concentration-time curve of MDMA, the impairment in the reaction to light is associated with the subjective and other autonomic effects of MDMA and exhibits acute tolerance.
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Departments of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 2, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Administration of (±) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes memory errors by increasing proactive interference. This might occur because MDMA alters sensitivity to reinforcement. The curren...
Prior to 1985, ± 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was readily used as a psychotherapeutic adjunct. As MDMA became popular in treating various psychiatric illnesses by mental health professi...
Duloxetine and venlafaxine are selective serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitors used as antidepressants and co-analgesics. While venlafaxine rather than duloxetine induce cardiovascular side-eff...
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to ...
Negative symptoms are a significant barrier to successful functional outcome and recovery in individuals with schizophrenia and their management is not unproblematic. Reboxetine is a norepinephrine re...
The purpose of this study is to determinate the effect of a pre-treatment with the combined serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transport blocker duloxetine on the pharmacodynamics an...
The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA (particularly its emotional effects) and to determine the role of serotonin in these effects. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, w...
This study was designed to determine if the novel combination of the SSRI, sertraline, and the NRI reboxetine will increase antidepressant efficacy without sacrificing the favorable safety...
MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, "Ecstasy") produces tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, and other acute adverse effects. Ecstasy use has also been associated with rare cardio...
The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA on sleep, mood, thinking, and how your body retains water. The researchers are interested in the effects that occur a few hour...
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...