Effects of MDMA alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin on pupillary light reflex.

19:24 EDT 1st September 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Effects of MDMA alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin on pupillary light reflex."


RATIONALE:
Pupillometry can be used to characterize autonomic drug effects.
OBJECTIVE:
This study was conducted to determine the autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), administered alone and after pretreatment with reboxetine, duloxetine, clonidine, carvedilol, and doxazosin, on pupillary function.
METHODS:
Infrared pupillometry was performed in five placebo-controlled randomized studies. Each study included 16 healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) who received placebo-MDMA (125 mg), placebo-placebo, pretreatment-placebo, or pretreatment-MDMA using a crossover design.
RESULTS:
MDMA produced mydriasis, prolonged the latency, reduced the response to light, and shortened the recovery time. The impaired reflex response was associated with subjective, cardiostimulant, and hyperthermic drug effects and returned to normal within 6 h after MDMA administration when plasma MDMA levels were still high. Mydriasis was associated with changes in plasma MDMA concentration over time and longer-lasting. Both reboxetine and duloxetine interacted with the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Clonidine did not significantly reduce the mydriatic effects of MDMA, although it produced miosis when administered alone. Carvedilol and doxazosin did not alter the effects of MDMA on pupillary function.
CONCLUSIONS:
The MDMA-induced prolongation of the latency to and reduction of light-induced miosis indicate indirect central parasympathetic inhibition, and the faster recovery time reflects an increased sympathomimetic action. Both norepinephrine and serotonin mediate the effects of MDMA on pupillary function. Although mydriasis is lasting and mirrors the plasma concentration-time curve of MDMA, the impairment in the reaction to light is associated with the subjective and other autonomic effects of MDMA and exhibits acute tolerance.

Affiliation

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Departments of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 2, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Psychopharmacology
ISSN: 1432-2072
Pages:

Links

PubMed Articles [11245 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Maternal MDMA administration in mice leads to neonatal growth delay.

The psychoactive recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is widely abused. The fact that MDMA induces neurotoxic damage in serotonergic nerve endings is well known. However, the eff...

Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression.

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicat...

MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Analogues as Tools to Characterize MDMA-Like Effects: An Approach to Understand Entactogen Pharmacology.

Besides stimulants and hallucinogens, whose psychotropic effects are shared by many structurally related molecules exhibiting different efficacies and potencies in humans, the phenylisopropylamine MDM...

How MDMA's Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics Drive Desired Effects and Harms.

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desire...

Augmentation of antidepressant effects of duloxetine and bupropion by caffeine in mice.

There is an unmet need in the treatment of depression suggesting requirement of new therapeutic approaches having better efficacy and safety profile. Patients receiving antidepressant therapy generall...

Clinical Trials [496 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Interaction Between Duloxetine and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)

The purpose of this study is to determinate the effect of a pre-treatment with the combined serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transport blocker duloxetine on the pharmacodynamics an...

Role of Serotonin in Acute and Subacute MDMA Effects

The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA (particularly its emotional effects) and to determine the role of serotonin in these effects. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, w...

A Comparison of Sertraline-Reboxetine Combination Therapy Versus Sertraline or Reboxetine Monotherapy in the Treatment of Major Depression.

This study was designed to determine if the novel combination of the SSRI, sertraline, and the NRI reboxetine will increase antidepressant efficacy without sacrificing the favorable safety...

Pharmacological Interaction Between Pindolol and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, "Ecstasy") produces tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, and other acute adverse effects. Ecstasy use has also been associated with rare cardio...

The Effects of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on Sleep Architecture, Water Homeostasis and Cognitive Function

The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of MDMA on sleep, mood, thinking, and how your body retains water. The researchers are interested in the effects that occur a few hour...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.

Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.

Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.

The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.

Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.

Search BioPortfolio:
Advertisement
Advertisement