The metastatic niche and stromal progression.
Summary of "The metastatic niche and stromal progression."
The tumor stroma is comprised of extracellular matrix, non-malignant cells, and the signaling molecules they produce. It is an integral and vital component of primary tumors that together with the underlying genetic defects in the tumor cells determines the growth characteristics, morphology, and invasiveness of the tumor. In parallel to continuing genetic changes in the tumor cells themselves, the tumor stroma progressively evolves during primary tumor development. Cancer cells that disseminate from primary tumors are dependent on this stromal microenvironment, and therefore the microenvironment they encounter at secondary sites determines their fate. For those cells that survive at these sites, stromal progression can serve to re-establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the cells as metastases. Formation of a metastatic niche that supports the survival and growth of disseminated tumor cells is a key feature of this stromal progression. The endogenous organ microenvironment can provide components of the metastatic niche. In addition, microenvironmental changes in organs prior to receipt of disseminated tumor cells can be induced by factors secreted systemically by primary tumors, causing the formation of pre-metastatic niches. Further maturation of metastatic niches can be responsible for the re-activation of dormant disseminated tumor cells many years after removal of the primary tumor. The concept of the metastatic niche and stromal progression has profound consequences for our understanding of metastatic disease, and promises to open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and therapy of cancer.
Centre for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, TRIDOMUS-Gebäude Haus C, Ludolf-Krehl-Str. 13-17, 68167, Mannheim, Germany, Sleeman@medma.uni-heidelberg.de.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer metastasis reviews
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22699312
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-012-9373-9
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Endometrial Stromal Tumors
Neoplasms of the endometrial stroma that sometimes involve the MYOMETRIUM. These tumors contain cells that may closely or remotely resemble the normal stromal cells. Endometrial stromal neoplasms are divided into three categories: (1) benign stromal nodules; (2) low-grade stromal sarcoma, or endolymphatic stromal myosis; and (3) malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma (SARCOMA, ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL).
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Stem Cell Niche
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Sex Cord-gonadal Stromal Tumors
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
Mucocellular carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by areas of mucoid degeneration and the presence of signet-ring-like cells. It accounts for 30%-40% of metastatic cancers to the ovaries and possibly 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. The lesions may not be discovered until the primary disease is advanced, and most patients die of their disease within a year. In some cases, a primary tumor is not found. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1685)
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