Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: diagnosis and management.
Summary of "Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: diagnosis and management."
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are uncommon but rising in incidence. There have been recent changes in the WHO nomenclature and a newly proposed American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging, which complement each other. These neoplasms are of great medical and radiological interest because of their diverse presenting features and imaging appearances. There is an increased role for both anatomic and functional imaging in the assessment of these neoplasms. A review of the nomenclature, staging, and imaging is presented in this paper.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1473, P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX, 77030, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Abdominal imaging
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707246
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-012-9923-1
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
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