Regulation and dysregulation of innate immunity by NFAT signaling downstream of PRRs.

21:17 EST 19th December 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Regulation and dysregulation of innate immunity by NFAT signaling downstream of PRRs."

Innate immunity is the most ancient form of response to pathogens and it relies on evolutionary conserved signaling pathways, i.e. those involving the NF-κB pathway. Nevertheless, increasing evidence suggests that factors that have appeared more recently in evolution, such as the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell transcription factor family (NFATc), also contribute to innate immune-response regulation in vertebrates. Exposure to inflammatory stimuli induces the activation of NFATc factors in innate immune cells, including conventional dendritic cells (DCs), granulocytes, mast cells and, under pathological circumstances, also macrophages. While the evolutionary conserved functions of innate immunity, such as direct microbial killing and interferon (IFN) production, are expected to be NFATc independent, other aspects of innate immunity, including collaboration with adaptive immunity and mechanisms to limit the tissue damage generated by the inflammatory process, are presumably controlled by NFATc members in collaboration with other transcription factors. In this article, we discuss the recent advances regarding the role of the NFATc signaling pathway in regulating DC, neutrophil and macrophage responses to specific inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-glucan-bearing microorganisms. We also discuss how NFATc signaling influences the interactions of myeloid cells with lymphocytes.

Affiliation

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: European journal of immunology
ISSN: 1521-4141
Pages:

Links

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.

A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.

Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.

A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.

The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.

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