Tobacco, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, and the risk of head and neck cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cohort.
Summary of "Tobacco, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, and the risk of head and neck cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cohort."
Estimation of attributable fractions for tobacco and alcohol, and investigation of the association between body mass index (BMI) and head and neck cancer risk have largely been in case-control studies. These aspects and physical activity need to be assessed as possible head and neck cancer risk/protective factors in a cohort study.
In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial, of the 101,182 study subjects, 177 individuals developed head and neck cancer.
The proportion of head and neck cancer cases attributed to tobacco and/or alcohol was 66% (50.5% tobacco alone, 14.7% alcohol alone, 0.9% tobacco and alcohol combined). BMI was not associated with head and neck cancer risk, but increasing hours of physical activity per week was associated with a reduced head and neck cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.96).
Cigarette smoking is clearly the most important head and neck cancer risk factor in this population. The reduced cancer risk due to physical activity was consistent with results from a pooled analysis of case-control studies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.
Division of Public Health, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Head & neck
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Body Mass Index
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Tobacco Use Disorder
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
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