Optimizing the management of acute ischaemic stroke: a review of the utilization of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA).
Summary of "Optimizing the management of acute ischaemic stroke: a review of the utilization of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)."
What is known and Objective:â€‚ Thrombolysis using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only available evidence-based treatment for acute ischaemic stroke; however, its current utilization is very low. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the literature regarding the use of intravenous tPA for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. The review will also compare utilization rates of thrombolysis in different centres across the world and identify key reasons for the underutilization of thrombolysis in stroke. Methods:â€‚ MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Google Scholar were searched for relevant original articles, review papers and other publications over the publication period 1995-2012. Results and Discussion:â€‚ The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (1995, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ624 patients) and ECASS III (2008, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ821 patients) are two pivotal randomized controlled trials providing evidence for the use of intravenous tPA within 3â€ƒh or 3-4Â·5â€ƒh from stroke onset, respectively. Both trials have shown that tPA administration decreases disability at 90â€ƒdays from stroke. Furthermore, a recent pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials (2010, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ3670 patients) supports these results, highlighting that early stroke treatment is associated with better outcomes, especially when treatment is started within 90â€ƒmin of stroke onset (but suggesting that the benefit could be afforded within a 4Â·5-h time window). Three major observational trials, STARS (2000, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ389 patients), CASES (2005, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ1135 patients) and SITS-MOST (2007, Nâ€ƒ=â€ƒ6483 patients), have reported acceptable safety and efficacy in clinical practice. However, only a small proportion of acute ischaemic stroke patients receive tPA in clinical practice, because of the limited availability of tPA-utilizing sites and suboptimal use of tPA in sites where it is available. What is new and Conclusion:â€‚ tPA reduces disability in stroke patients. Moreover, acceptable safety has been demonstrated in routine clinical practice. However, tPA is significantly underutilized, and specific efforts are needed to encourage appropriate implementation of the stroke treatment guidelines to optimize the use of this important therapy.
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW and School of Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708668
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.2012.01366.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Drug Utilization Review
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.
Business management of medical and dental practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.
An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.
Peer Review, Health Care
The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).
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