Different effects of spinalization and locomotor training of spinal animals on cholinergic innervation of the soleus and tibialis anterior motoneurons.
Summary of "Different effects of spinalization and locomotor training of spinal animals on cholinergic innervation of the soleus and tibialis anterior motoneurons."
Cholinergic input modulates excitability of motoneurons and plays an important role in the control of locomotion in both intact and spinalized animals. However, spinal cord transection in adult rats affects cholinergic innervation of only some hindlimb motoneurons, suggesting that specificity of this response is related to functional differences between motoneurons. Our aim was therefore to compare cholinergic input to motoneurons innervating the soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) motoneurons following spinal cord transection at a low-thoracic level. The second aim was to investigate whether deficits in cholinergic input to these motoneurons could be modified by locomotor training. The Sol and TA motoneurons were identified by retrograde labelling with fluorescent dyes injected intramuscularly. Cholinergic terminals were detected using anti-vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) antibody. Overall innervation of motoneurons was evaluated with anti-synaptophysin antibody. After spinalization we found a decrease in the number of VAChT-positive boutons apposing perikarya of the Sol (to 49%) but not TA motoneurons. Locomotor training, resulting in moderate functional improvement, partly reduced the deficit in cholinergic innervation of Sol motoneurons by increasing the number of VAChT-positive boutons. However, the optical density of VAChT-positive boutons terminating on various motoneurons, which decreased after spinalization, continued to decrease despite the training, suggesting an impairment of acetylcholine availability in the terminals. Different effects of spinal cord transection on cholinergic innervation of motoneurons controlling the ankle extensor and flexor muscles point to different functional states of these muscles in paraplegia as a possible source of activity-dependent signaling regulating cholinergic input to the motoneurons.
Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The European journal of neuroscience
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708650
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08182.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
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