Depression, Testosterone Concentration, Sexual Dysfunction and Methadone Use Among Men with Hypogonadism and HIV Infection.
Summary of "Depression, Testosterone Concentration, Sexual Dysfunction and Methadone Use Among Men with Hypogonadism and HIV Infection."
Low testosterone levels are associated with depression and impaired sexual performance. We examined the association between hypogonadism, sexual function and depression among men with HIV infection in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 237 male HIV-positive patients referred to voluntary counseling centers were recruited based on convenience sampling from May to October 2010. All patients provided informed consent and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI). Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to measure free testosterone (FT) concentration. Hypogonadism was found in 68 % of the participants, and about 68.8 % had moderate and severe depression. Serum FT levels were significantly lower in patients with depression and a direct association was found between the risk of hypogonadism and increased BDI-II score. Among methadone nonusers and nondepressed patients, an inverse association was found between hypogonadal and eugonadal men in the sexual drive, erectile and ejaculatory function domains of the BMSFI. However, there was no significant association between methadone user status and depression. Depression and hypogonadism had a reciprocal effect. Depression and methadone use were associated with hypogonadism and had a significant effect on sexual function.
Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: AIDS and behavior
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722881
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-012-0234-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.
Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. It also has a depressant action on the cough center and may be given to control intractable cough associated with terminal lung cancer. Methadone is also used as part of the treatment of dependence on opioid drugs, although prolonged use of methadone itself may result in dependence. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological
Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
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