Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function.
Summary of "Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function."
Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of 'information content' to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates.
Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Congenital Disorders Of Glycosylation
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
Hiv Envelope Protein Gp120
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The study of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of CARBOHYDRATES and GLYCOSYLATION.
Hiv Envelope Protein Gp160
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Glycosylation End Products, Advanced
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
Protein glycosylation is a common and complex posttranslational modification of proteins, which expands functional diversity while boosting structural heterogeneity. Glycoproteins, the end products of...
A major advantage of recombinant DNA technology is its flexibility allowing for "on demand" production of specific proteins with theurapeutic value in heterologous expression systems. Gene expression...
An appreciation of the structures of the oligosaccharide chains which become attached to biomolecules (the process known as glycosylation), and their relevance to the biological function of the molecu...
The synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropic hormones involves coordination of signal transduction, gene expression, protein translation, post-translational folding and modification and finally sec...
Endothelial lipase (gene: LIPG; enzyme: EL) is one of three members of the triglyceride lipase family that contributes to lipoprotein degradation within the circulation system and plays a major role i...
The present proposal is designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate and protein co-ingestion on muscle protein synthesis during endurance type exercise activities. We hypothesize that m...
When we age, we lose muscle. It is not exactly clear why this happens, but we do know that this muscle loss can increase health risks and lead to health problems. Lifting weights (i.e. per...
With aging, there is a decrease in muscle mass and function especially in the energy storehouses of cells called mitochondria. Amino acids, the building blocks of protein, and insulin hav...
OBJECTIVES: I. Determine whether testosterone normalization ameliorates muscle protein hypercatabolism by increasing net protein synthesis in men with burn injury. II. Determine whether t...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role skeletal muscle perfusion plays in mediating muscle protein synthesis in healthy older and younger individuals. The investigators hypothes...