Ubiquitin removal in the TGF-β pathway.
Summary of "Ubiquitin removal in the TGF-β pathway."
The transforming growth factor (TGF-β) pathway is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis at different levels. Two studies now identify deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) for the TGF-β type I receptor. Both ubiquitin-specific peptidase-4 (USP4) and -15 (USP15) extend the life of activated receptors against the negative pressure of receptor-ubiquitinating complexes, but through distinct modes of action.
Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature cell biology
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Ubiquitin-protein Ligase Complexes
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A single protein comprised of tandem repeats of the UBIQUITIN 78-amino acid sequence. It is a product of the polyubiquitin gene which contains multiple copies of the ubiquitin coding sequence. Proteolytic processing of ubiquitin C results in the formation of individual ubiquitin molecules. This protein is distinct from POLYUBIQUITIN, which is a protein formed through isopeptide linkage of multiple ubiquitin species.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
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