CLINICAL, MORPHOLOGIC, AND MORPHOMETRIC FEATURES OF CRANIAL THORACIC SPINAL STENOSIS IN LARGE AND GIANT BREED DOGS.
Summary of "CLINICAL, MORPHOLOGIC, AND MORPHOMETRIC FEATURES OF CRANIAL THORACIC SPINAL STENOSIS IN LARGE AND GIANT BREED DOGS."
The clinical, morphologic, and morphometric features of cranial thoracic spinal stenosis were investigated in large and giant breed dogs. Seventy-nine magnetic resonance imaging studies of the cranial thoracic spine were assessed. Twenty-six were retrieved retrospectively and 53 were acquired prospectively using the same inclusion criteria. Images were evaluated using a modified compression scale as: no osseous stenosis (grade 0), osseous stenosis without spinal cord compression (grade 1), and osseous stenosis with spinal cord compression (grade 2). Morphometric analysis was performed and compared to the subjective grading system. Grades 1 and 2 cranial thoracic spinal stenosis were identified on 24 imaging studies in 23 dogs. Sixteen of 23 dogs had a conformation typified by Molosser breeds and 21/23 were male. The most common sites of stenosis were T2-3 and T3-4. The articular process joints were enlarged with abnormal oblique orientation. Stenosis was dorsolateral, lateralized, or dorsoventral. Concurrent osseous cervical spondylomyelopathy was recognized in six dogs and other neurologic disease in five dogs. Cranial thoracic spinal stenosis was the only finding in 12 dogs. In 9 of these 12 dogs (all grade 2) neurolocalization was to the T3-L3 spinal segment. The median age of these dogs was 9.5 months. In the remaining three dogs neurologic signs were not present. Stenosis ratios were of limited benefit in detecting stenotic sites. Grade 2 cranial thoracic spinal stenosis causing direct spinal cord compression may lead to neurologic signs, however milder stenosis (grade 1) is likely to be subclinical or incidental.
From the Department of Radiology.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22741808
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2012.01953.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Central Cord Syndrome
A syndrome associated with traumatic injury to the cervical or upper thoracic regions of the spinal cord characterized by weakness in the arms with relative sparing of the legs and variable sensory loss. This condition is associated with ischemia, hemorrhage, or necrosis involving the central portions of the spinal cord. Corticospinal fibers destined for the legs are spared due to their more external location in the spinal cord. This clinical pattern may emerge during recovery from spinal shock. Deficits may be transient or permanent.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)
Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome
Ischemia or infarction of the spinal cord in the distribution of the anterior spinal artery, which supplies the ventral two-thirds of the spinal cord. This condition is usually associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS of the aorta and may result from dissection of an AORTIC ANEURYSM or rarely dissection of the anterior spinal artery. Clinical features include weakness and loss of pain and temperature sensation below the level of injury, with relative sparing of position and vibratory sensation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1249-50)
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
The patients with lumbar spinal stenosis do not automatically deteriorate and will remain unchanged or even improved by conservative treatment. Spine surgeries for the patients with lumbar spinal sten...
Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infilt...
OBJECTIVE: Low back pain (LBP) due to spinal stenosis may be one of the most debilitating symptoms to decrease the quality of life. The cause and effect association of LBP and depression is vague. Pai...
ABSTRACT: Three Chinese patients suffered from severe lumbar spinal stenosis with debilitating symptoms due to a rare condition of ligamentum flavum cysts in the midline of the lumbar spine. This dise...
Neurogenic claudication is most frequently observed in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We describe a patient with lumbar epidural varices secondary to obstruction of the inferior ve...
The purpose of this study is to determine if the ACADIA™ Facet Replacement System is effective in the treatment of spinal stenosis. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the...
The purpose of this study is to compare two operation methods on lumbar spinal stenosis; minimal invasive decompression to X-stop. It is a prospective randomized multicenter study includin...
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the coflex device compared to the control.
Neurogenic intermittent claudication is a specific symptom complex occurring in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Characteristic of this disease is the occurrence of increasing leg, bu...
The primary purpose of the study is to measure the change in severity of symptoms and ability to function in every day activities in patients suffering from degenerative lumbar spinal sten...