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The assessment of soil quality after a chemical or oil spill and/or remediation effort may be measured by evaluating the toxicity of soil organisms. To enhance our understanding of the soil quality resulting from laboratory and oil field spill remediation, we assessed toxicity levels by using earthworms and springtails testing and plant growth experiments. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated soil samples were collected from an oilfield in Sfax, Tunisia. Two types of bioassays were performed. The first assessed the toxicity of spiked crude oil (API gravity 32) in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development artificial soil. The second evaluated the habitat function through the avoidance responses of earthworms and springtails and the ability of Avena sativa to grow in TPH-contaminated soils diluted with farmland soil. The EC(50) of petroleum-contaminated soil for earthworms was 644 mg of TPH/kg of soil at 14 days, with 67 % of the earthworms dying after 14 days when the TPH content reached 1,000 mg/kg. The average germination rate, calculated 8 days after sowing, varied between 64 and 74 % in low contaminated soils and less than 50 % in highly contaminated soils.
University of Sfax, Laboratory of Water, Energy and Environment, National School of Engineers of Sfa (ENIS), P.O. Box 1173, 3038, Sfax, Tunisia, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental monitoring and assessment
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Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A major group of polyphyletic organisms of extremely varied morphology and physiology, mostly photosynthetic, but distinguished from plants by their complex form of sexual reproduction. They are freshwater and marine, terrestrial and subterranean; some are neustonic (living at the interface of water and the atmosphere). They live in various protozoa and within other plants. They live also in soil and on soil surfaces, on long-persistent snows, and in Antarctic rocks. Thermophilic algae inhabit hot springs. (From Webster, 3d ed; from Bold & Wynne, Introduction to the Algae, 2d ed, pp1-6)
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.