Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C: High expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells.
Summary of "Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C: High expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells."
Abstract Objective. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) includes a heterogeneous collection of underlying pathological conditions. Compared to the classic IC with a Hunner lesion, now denominated ESSIC type 3C, the non-Hunner type of BPS/IC appears different in a number of respects. In a previous study, measuring luminal nitric oxide (NO) in the bladder of patients with BPS/IC, it was reported that all patients with ESSIC type 3C had high levels of NO. The aim of the present study was to investigate the source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and thereby the cellular origin of NO production via iNOS. Material and methods. Immunohistochemistry, with two different anti-iNOS antibodies, was used to study10 patients with BPS/IC ESSIC type 3C who expressed high levels of intraluminal NO. These results were compared with four patients with non-Hunner BPS/IC. To substantiate further the involvement of iNOS in this condition, the protein expression of nitrotyrosine, a marker for iNOS activation, was also assessed. Results. On routine histopathology, the tissues of type 3C patients exhibited inflammatory infiltrates of varying intensity. Strong immunoreactivity for both iNOS and nitrotyrosine was noted within the urothelium but also within the inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria of these subjects. Conclusions. The findings of a clearly detectable protein expression of iNOS in both the urothelium and the inflammatory infiltrates in bladder biopsies from patients with BPS/IC ESSIC type 3C suggest that the production of NO, in this entity, may occur in different tissue compartments.
Departments of Urology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775390
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365599.2012.699100
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
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