What is the brain-cancer connection?
Summary of "What is the brain-cancer connection?"
A focus of much cancer research is at the molecular and cellular levels. In contrast, the effects of social interactions and psychological state are less investigated, and considered by many a "soft" science. Yet several highly rigorous studies have begun to tease out biochemical pathways by which the brain can influence the development and growth of cancer. Previous reviews have discussed the concept of stress and cancer. Here, we discuss recent work showing environments that are more complex and challenging, but not stressful per se, and that have robust effects on peripheral cancer by activating a specific neuroendocrine brain-adipocyte axis. These enriched environments lead to activation of the sympathetic innervation of fat tissue, suppression of leptin, and a reduction in cancer proliferation by inducing hypothalamic BDNF expression. We summarize this work and discuss how these data integrate into the body of literature regarding stress, the environment, and cancer.
College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; email: firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of neuroscience
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22462541
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150546
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
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