Gene signatures in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Summary of "Gene signatures in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma."
Clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process. Currently existing prognostic staging systems have substantially improved the clinical outcome of patients by guiding treatment decision and allocation of medical resources. However, there is still room to refine many aspects of the framework based on more precise clinical outcome prediction and understanding of HCC molecular pathogenesis. Recent development of genomic technologies has enabled survey of molecular aberrations and deregulations directly from patient specimens in a comprehensive manner. This also has provided clues to therapeutic/preventive targets that could also serve as prognostic/predictive biomarkers. Structural alterations and chemical modifications of genomic DNA have been shown to be useful to guide molecular targeted therapies in some cancers. Gene expression signatures also hold promise as a way to probe functional biological status of the tumor specimen. However, accumulated studies have revealed roadblocks toward the goal to utilize the information in clinic. In this review, we discuss the gene signature's potential application, its pros and cons as a clinical test, technical issues in assay development, and strategies for clinical deployment in the context of HCC management. Recent updates of HCC gene signatures as well as emerging alternative modalities are also overviewed.
Mount Sinai Liver Cancer Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22846864
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.05.003
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis B Virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life. They reappear in the adult serum during certain pathologic states, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma. They may also be elevated in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum during pregnancy in ANENCEPHALY.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.
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