Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: newer radiological tools.
Summary of "Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: newer radiological tools."
With the recent dramatic advances in diagnostic modalities, the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily based on imaging. Ultrasound (US) plays a crucial role in HCC surveillance. Dynamic multiphasic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the standard diagnostic methods for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, which can be made based on hemodynamic features (arterial enhancement and delayed washout). The technical development of MDCT and MRI has made possible the fast scanning with better image quality and resolution, which enables an accurate CT hemodynamic evaluation of hepatocellular tumor, as well as the application of perfusion CT and MRI in clinical practice. Perfusion CT and MRI can measure perfusion parameters of tumor quantitatively and can be used for treatment response assessment to anti-vascular agents. Besides assessing the hemodynamic or perfusion features of HCC, new advances in MRI can provide a cellular information of HCC. Liver-specific hepatobiliary contrast agents, such as gadoxetic acid, give information regarding hepatocellular function or defect of the lesion, which improves lesion detection and characterization. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the liver provides cellular information of HCC and also has broadened its role in lesion detection, lesion characterization, and treatment response assessment to chemotherapeutic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the state-of-the art imaging techniques of the liver and their clinical role in management of HCC.
Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22846858
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.05.010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis B Virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life. They reappear in the adult serum during certain pathologic states, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma. They may also be elevated in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum during pregnancy in ANENCEPHALY.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.
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