Some new approaches to the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Summary of "Some new approaches to the management of hepatocellular carcinoma."
A concordance of multiple advances is changing the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These include: (1) identification of preventable and treatable causal factors, including hepatitis B and obesity (non-alcoholic steatotic hepatitis [NASH]); (2) description of molecular and proteomic profiles for HCC prognosis, disease subtyping, and drug selection; (3) identification of circulating tumor cells for non-invasive molecular typing; (4) identification of tumor stem cells, for HCC subtyping and as treatment targets; (5) large numbers of multi-kinase inhibitors that are currently undergoing clinical trial assessment and comparison; (6) an array of newer therapies of different drug classes, aimed at a wide range of targets in cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and tumor invasion pathways; (7) newer regional chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens and delivery systems; (8) the extension of liver transplantation to larger HCCs and its wider availability through use of living-related organ donors; (9) new radiological techniques to assess the changes in HCC vascularity associated with angiogenic drug actions; (10) re-evaluation of the importance of tumor biopsy to obtain molecular signatures; (11) recognition of the importance of non-tumor liver parenchyma for tumor growth control and as a source of prognostic profiling in HCC patients; (12) the evaluation of kinase- and other inhibitors in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapy associated with resection and liver transplant and minimization of transplant waiting list drop-out; (13) re-evaluation of the role or limitation of tumor responses, since kinase inhibitors can enhance survival without HCC size responses; and (14) the development of combination therapies to enhance tumor control rates, either using drugs targeting differing pathways, or kinase-inhibitors combined with either chemotherapy drugs or yttrium 90.
IRCCS de Bellis National Institute for Digestive Diseases, Castellana Grotte (BA), Italy; and Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22846855
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.05.007
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis B Virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life. They reappear in the adult serum during certain pathologic states, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma. They may also be elevated in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum during pregnancy in ANENCEPHALY.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.
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