Non-smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A neglected entity?
Summary of "Non-smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A neglected entity?"
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it has been strongly correlated to tobacco smoking. While a number of studies have concentrated on smokers only, recent published data demonstrate that at least one fourth of patients with COPD are non-smokers, and that the burden of COPD in non-smokers is also higher than previously believed. Risk factors of COPD in non-smokers may include genetic factors, long-standing asthma, outdoor air pollution (from traffic and other sources), environmental smoke exposure (ETS), biomass smoke, occupational exposure, diet, recurrent respiratory infection in early childhood, tuberculosis and so on. In Asian region, indoor/outdoor air pollution and poor socioeconomic status may play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-smoking-related COPD. The prevalence of COPD among never smokers varies widely across nations. Such a variation may arise from several aspects, including study design, definition of COPD, diagnostic criteria, age and gender distribution of the studied population, local risk factors and socioeconomic status. More investigations and efforts are required to elucidate the involved factors and their shared contributions to non-smoking-related COPD so as to achieve better estimation and reduction of the burden of this neglected entity worldwide.
State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22845669
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02152.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Pulmonary Heart Disease
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Plethysmography, Whole Body
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
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