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Microbes often infect the uterus and particularly the endometrium of animals. Infections are most commonly associated with natural service, pregnancy and the post-partum period, leading to inflammation with the elaboration of cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. Clinical diseases such as metritis, endometritis and abortion are important causes of infertility. The adaptive immune response to infection has been characterized previously, so the present review aims to highlight the emerging role for innate immunity in the endometrium. The detection of microbes and the innate immune response depends on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors. The main families of pattern recognition receptors are Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors. These receptors are most often expressed by hematopoietic cells, but the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium also possess functional receptors. For example, endometrial cells express TLR4 for recognition of the lipopolysaccharide endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, leading to secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E(2) . It is likely that the epithelial and stromal cells provide a first line of defence in the endometrium to alert hematopoietic cells to the presence of microbes within the uterus.
Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
Effects of Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Their Secretory Products on Microcirculation in the Broad Ligament of the Uterus of Wistar Rats during Experimental Chronic Genital Inflammation.
Effects of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and their secretory products released into the conditioned medium on microcirculatory bed in the broad ligament of the uterus were studied ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that usually affects people with reduced immunity. In recent years, this virus has been thought to cause repeated inflammation in the eye, in otherwise healthy people....
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Know...
Bacterial invasion of the bovine uterus during the postpartum period occurs in most cows, but the general consensus is that these bacteria are eliminated before the next pregnancy. The pregnant uterus...
While platelets have long been known to be essential for maintaining hemostasis in the vasculature, their role in tissue repair, inflammation and innate and adaptive immunity is a more recent science....
Uterus transplantation: screening, in vitro fertilization [IVF] treatment to be able to freeze embryos, uterus transplantation, pregnancy and afterwards removal of the uterus.
This is a 10 week, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to evaluate SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) effects for treatment of depression in HIV/AIDS with a focus on innate i...
This study is to review how the uterus heals after having open fetal surgery. Open fetal surgery causes a scar perhaps two: one from the open fetal surgery and a second from delivery by c...
The purpose of this study is to determine, by means of DNA and protein analysis, the relationship between DNA and protein profiles and a number of endpoints which are important for the pat...
The study is a follow up of NCT01844362. Uterus transplantation will be performed from live donors to patients with uterine factor infertility. If will be performed before transplantation....
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
A condition in which the UTERUS is found tilted backward toward the spine. The uterus is more commonly found in a straight vertical or anteverted (tipped forward) position. Although retroverted uterus is a normal variant position without symptoms, it is sometimes associated with pain, discomfort and other pregnancy complications.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Inflammation of the parametrium, the connective tissue of the pelvic floor, extending from the subserous coat of the uterus laterally between the layers of the BROAD LIGAMENT.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...