Transcranial brain stimulation after stroke.
Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults. In Germany an estimated 1.5 million stroke survivors have to cope with persisting sensorimotor or cognitive deficits and effective therapies are scarce. The idea of using non-invasive brain stimulation to treat neuropsychiatric diseases was already born more than 2,000 years ago (Scribonius largus, 43-48 AD). However, only the development of modern non-invasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has made it possible to evaluate these ideas. The therapeutic value of these non-invasive brain stimulation methods is currently under study for several neuropsychiatric diseases, mostly in a proof-of-principle fashion. In this article the focus will be on non-invasive brain stimulation to enhance functional regeneration after stroke.
BrainImaging and NeuroStimulation (BINS) Labor, Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Nervenarzt
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22854873
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00115-012-3566-x
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation changes excitability of the motor cortex and it has hereby the potential to modulate changes in neural processing which impede motor recovery after stroke.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.