Radiological diagnostics of spinal tumors : Part 2: special diagnostics of intradural tumors and tumor-like lesions.
Summary of "Radiological diagnostics of spinal tumors : Part 2: special diagnostics of intradural tumors and tumor-like lesions."
Intradural tumors are classified into extramedullary and intramedullary localization. A distinct attribution to one of these compartments is essential for finding the appropriate diagnosis. In the radiological evaluation of intradural tumors magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most important method and in contrast to osseous spinal tumors, radiography and computed tomography are of minor importance. According to the globally established WHO grading system, tumors of the central nervous system are histopathologically classified into four grades. Through grades I to IV malignancy and proliferative activity increase. Prognosis is inversely correlated to the WHO grade. Intradural tumors are generally treated by neurosurgeons. Besides neurological symptoms intradural tumors often cause spinal malpositioning. Thus knowledge of the most frequent intradural tumors and their characteristic magnetic resonance findings are important in the orthopedic practice.
Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120, Heidelberg, Deutschland, Marcel.Wolf@med.uni-heidelberg.de.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Orthopade
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22871795
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00132-012-1906-y
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Glioma derived from ependymocytes that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.
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