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The pressure drop and temperature drop on columns packed with 3- and 5-micron particles were measured using neat CO(2) at a flow rate of 5mL/min, at temperatures from 20°C to 100°C, and outlet pressures from 80 to 300bar. The density drop was calculated based on the temperature and pressure at the column inlet and outlet. The columns were suspended in a circulating air bath either bare or covered with foam insulation. The results show that the pressure drop depends on the outlet pressure, the operating temperature, and the thermal environment. A temperature drop was observed for all conditions studied. The temperature drop was relatively small (less than 3°C) for combinations of low temperature and high pressure. Larger temperature drops and density drops occurred at higher temperatures and low to moderate pressures. Covering the column with thermal insulation resulted in larger temperature drops and corresponding smaller density drops. At 20°C the temperature drop was never more than a few degrees. The largest temperature drops occurred for both columns when insulated at 80°C and 80bar, reaching a maximum value of 21°C for the 5-micron column, and 26°C for the 3-micron column. For an adiabatic column, the temperature drop depends on the pressure drop, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the density and the heat capacity of the mobile phase fluid, and can be described by a simple mathematical relationship. For a fixed operating temperature and outlet pressure, the temperature drop increases monotonically with the pressure drop.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of chromatography. A
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The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.