Endoplasmic reticulum stress in nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.
Summary of "Endoplasmic reticulum stress in nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease."
The underlying causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are unclear, although recent evidence has implicated the endoplasmic reticulum in both the development of steatosis and progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, often termed ER stress, has been observed in liver and adipose tissue of humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or obesity. Importantly, the signaling pathway activated by disruption of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, has been linked to lipid and membrane biosynthesis, insulin action, inflammation, and apoptosis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the role of the unfolded protein response in the broader context of chronic, metabolic diseases have become topics of intense investigation. The present review examines the endoplasmic reticulum and the unfolded protein response in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523; email: email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of nutrition
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809102
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071811-150644
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Activating Transcription Factor 6
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
In this study we investigated whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) could protect HepG2 cells from free fatty acid (FFA)-induced apoptosis.
Insulin resistance is known to be the most important pathogenic factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We performed a prospective study to analyze the associations of baseline...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in US children and adolescents and can present with advanced fibrosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). No treat...
Perturbations in the normal functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trigger a signaling network that coordinates adaptive and apoptotic responses. There is accumulating evidence implicating prolon...
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of liver disease in the United States. The incidence of NAFLD is very similar to that of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the...
The investigators' aim is to determine whether probiotic and prebiotic treatment plus lifestyle advice is more effective in reducing hepatic fat content than lifestyle advice alone in pati...
The purpose of this interventional study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children or adolescents with well-characterized and liver biopsy conf...
The purpose of this study is to determine if therapeutic modification of insulin resistance or oxidative stress leads to improvement in serum or histologic indicators of liver injury or qu...
The most common cause of death in patients with NAFLD(Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) is CAD(Coronary Artery Disease). NAFLD patients have 65% more mortality than general population. The...