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Spironolactone is an aldosterone antagonist, considered fourth line therapy for hypertension in patients already treated with multiple medications.
Primary: to determine the effect of spironolactone on patient mortality, morbidity, and to quantify the magnitude of blood pressure lowering effect of spironolactone monotherapy.Secondary: to determine the prevalence of adverse reactions observed with spironolactone monotherapy and to determine if there is a blood-pressure lowering dose response with spironolactone. SEARCH
We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (3rd Quarter 2009), MEDLINE (2005 - Sept. 2009), and EMBASE (2007 - Sept. 2009). References from retrieved studies were reviewed to identify any studies missed in the initial search. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION
We selected RCTs studying patients with primary hypertension. We excluded studies of patients with secondary or gestational hypertension, and studies where patients were receiving multiple antihypertensives. DATA COLLECTION AND
Two reviewers independently reviewed the search results for studies meeting our criteria. Three reviewers extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standardized data extraction form. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using RevMan 5. MAIN
Meta-analysis of the 5 cross-over studies found a reduction in SBP of 20.09 mmHg (95%
16.58-23.06,p<0.00001) and a 6.75 mmHg (95%
4.8-8.69,p<0.00001) reduction in DBP. These results were statistically significant and there was no evidence of heterogeneity between the studies. There may be a dose response effect with spironolactone up to 50 mg/day, but the confidence intervals around the mean end-of-study blood pressure for doses ranging 25-500 mg/day all overlapped. In other words, it appears that doses >50mg/day do not produce further reductions in either SBP or DBP. One cross-over study found that spironolactone 25 mg/day did not statistically significantly change SBP or DBP compared to placebo,
-21.15,1.35); DBP -2.34 (95%
From the limited available evidence, spironolactone appears to lower blood pressure compared to placebo to a similar degree in patients with primary (essential) hypertension when doses of 100-500 mg/day are given. A dose of 25 mg/day did not statistically significantly reduce systolic or diastolic blood pressure, compared to placebo. Given the lack of a dose-response, coupled with a possible increased risk in adverse events with higher doses, doses of 25 to 100 mg/day are reasonable. There is no evidence of the effect of spironolactone on clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients.
Pharmacy, Northern Health Authority, 1475 Edmonton Street, Prince George, BC, Canada, V2M 1S2.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
Both renal denervation (RDN) and spironolactone have been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. However, they have not been compared in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to compare...
Resistant hypertension is a common clinical situation. Identification of true resistant hypertension (using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to exclude white coat phenomenon, excluding second...
To examine whether spironolactone could reduce the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and lower blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension.
Recent evidence points to the effectiveness of spironolactone vs placebo in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RH). However, placebo is rarely a realistic treatment choice in uncontrolled hypert...
A mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor (MRS 810L ) leads to early-onset hypertension, which is markedly exacerbated during pregnancy. The mutation causes progesterone and even the MR antagonist ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of spironolactone on lowering blood pressure when added to therapy in patients with resistant arterial hypertension.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a larger dose of the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone combined with an ACE inhibitor (captopril) and a beta-blocker (carvedilol) is e...
The purpose of this study is to determine if patiromer treatment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects receiving spironolactone for the treatment of resistant hypertension will result i...
To evaluate the impact of spironolactone treatment on renal autoregulation in hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spironolactone on liver fibrosis progression and portal hypertension in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The patients were nonran...
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, life-threatening disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries between the heart and lungs of affected individuals. Symptoms can range from mild breathles...