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Reasons for performing study: Noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is widely used in human and small animal medicine. However, this technique has not yet been described in the horse, and compared to other angiographic techniques MRA could be more cost efficient and potentially safer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive anatomical reference of the normal equine head vasculature using a noncontrast MRA technique, on both low- and high-field MRI. Methods: Five healthy adult horses were examined, 4 with a low-field magnet (0.23T) and the remaining one with a high-field magnet (1.5T). The magnetic resonance angiography sequence used was TOF (time-of-flight) 2D-MRA and CT images of a vascular corrosion cast were subsequently used as anatomical references. Results: The MRA imaging protocol provided good visualisation of all major intra- and extracranial vessels down to a size of approximately 2 mm in diameter on both low- and high-field systems. This resulted in identification of vessels to the order of 3rd-4th branches of ramification. The visibility of the arteries was higher than of the veins, which showed lower signal intensity. Overall, MRA obtained with the high-field protocol provided better visualisation of the arteries, showing all the small arterial branches with a superior resolution. Conclusions: The use of a specific vascular sequence such as TOF 2D-MRA allows good visualisation of the equine head vasculature and eliminates the need for contrast media for MRA. Potential relevance: Magnetic resonance angiography allows for visualisation of the vasculature of the equine head. Vessel morphology, symmetry and size can be evaluated and this may possibly play a role in preoperative planning or characterisation of diseases of the head, such as neoplasia or guttural pouch mycosis.
Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Vete
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Equine veterinary journal
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Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
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