Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) of the normal equine head.
Summary of "Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) of the normal equine head."
Reasons for performing study: Noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is widely used in human and small animal medicine. However, this technique has not yet been described in the horse, and compared to other angiographic techniques MRA could be more cost efficient and potentially safer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive anatomical reference of the normal equine head vasculature using a noncontrast MRA technique, on both low- and high-field MRI. Methods: Five healthy adult horses were examined, 4 with a low-field magnet (0.23T) and the remaining one with a high-field magnet (1.5T). The magnetic resonance angiography sequence used was TOF (time-of-flight) 2D-MRA and CT images of a vascular corrosion cast were subsequently used as anatomical references. Results: The MRA imaging protocol provided good visualisation of all major intra- and extracranial vessels down to a size of approximately 2 mm in diameter on both low- and high-field systems. This resulted in identification of vessels to the order of 3rd-4th branches of ramification. The visibility of the arteries was higher than of the veins, which showed lower signal intensity. Overall, MRA obtained with the high-field protocol provided better visualisation of the arteries, showing all the small arterial branches with a superior resolution. Conclusions: The use of a specific vascular sequence such as TOF 2D-MRA allows good visualisation of the equine head vasculature and eliminates the need for contrast media for MRA. Potential relevance: Magnetic resonance angiography allows for visualisation of the vasculature of the equine head. Vessel morphology, symmetry and size can be evaluated and this may possibly play a role in preoperative planning or characterisation of diseases of the head, such as neoplasia or guttural pouch mycosis.
Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Vete
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Equine veterinary journal
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22943362
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2012.00621.x
Conventional saturation pulses cannot be used for 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) due to specific absorption rate (SAR) limitations. We overcome t...
Morphological and functional parameters such as chamber size and function, aortic diameters and distensibility, flow and T1 and T2* relaxation time can be assessed and quantified by cardiovascular mag...
This study aimed to describe and evaluate the influence of time-of-flight (TOF) information on metal artifact reduction in positron emission tomography (PET) image quality in clinical simultaneous PET...
Noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance renal angiography using a repetitive artery and venous labelling technique at 3 T: comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in subjects with normal renal function.
To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced MR angiography (NC-MRA) using the repetitive artery and venous labelling (RAVEL) technique to evaluate renal arteries compared to contrast-enhanc...
To develop a magnetization preparation sequence for simultaneous outer volume suppression (OVS) and T2 weighting in whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography.
The Chinese Cerebral Aneurysms Survey is a continuing prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of unenhanced, three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF...
To investigate the diagnostic performance of whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using two different magnetic resonance contrast agents.
The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA) of the pulmonary arteries in combination with magnetic reso...
To investigate the diagnostic performance of whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using subsystolic venous compression of the thigh.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic tool that creates high quality images of the human body without the use of X-ray (radiation). MRI is especially useful when studying the a...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.