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Growth retardation remains a clinical problem in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to and during end-stage renal disease. The growth of approximately 40 % of children on dialysis is stunted. Even so, growth hormone treatment (GH) is not used in the majority of small children prior to transplantation. Also, GH is effective in improving growth after transplantation, but again, it is only rarely used in this situation mainly for fear of triggering rejection episodes. In controlled studies, the number of patients who developed rejection episodes with GH was no greater than the number in untreated controls. However, patients with prior frequent rejection episodes developed further repeated subsequent rejection episodes. Many patients with repeated rejection episodes before GH treatment have reduced renal function and are expected to proceed to dialysis or retransplantation. We believe that in these patients, early individual decisions for or against GH treatment should be made as soon as other treatment strategies, such as steroid withdrawal, have failed or are not indicated. Decisions for GH treatment at a later pubertal age come too late for significant growth response and/or improvement of final height.
Centrum for Children and Adolescents, University Hospitals, Heidelberg, Germany, Otto.Mehls@med.uni-heidelberg.de.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
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A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
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