Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Ricin toxin A chain (RTA) is the cytotoxic component of the dimeric protein, ricin, one of the most potent and deadly plant toxins extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis. RTA has been investigated as a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy, in the form of immunotoxins, and as a method for depleting macrophages in vivo. The toxicity of RTA immunotoxins is mostly characterized by inflammation and necrosis and has been attributed to the RTA moiety of the conjugate. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of intravenously (i.v.) administered RTA alone and to assess whether the observed tissue injuries are associated with increases in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. RTA (10 or 90 µg/kg body weight) was administered to animals i.v., and 5 or 24 hours later, liver, lungs, kidneys, and hearts were examined. RTA, at a dose of 90 µg/kg (i.v.), resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in an inflammatory response (i.e., increases in hepatic and lung myeloperoxidase activity) and increases in oxidant response (increases in lipid peroxidation and decreases in glutathione levels in hepatic and lung homogenates). These data suggest that i.v. administration of RTA resulted in organ injuries that were associated with inflammation and OS.
Medical Sciences Division, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Lakehead University , Ontario , Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug and chemical toxicology
Ricin is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known against which there is no available antidote. Currently, the most promising countermeasures against the toxin are based on neutralizing antibodi...
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, also known as C. difficile associated diarrhea. The two major toxins, toxin A and toxin B are produced by most C. difficile ba...
The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin EL...
T-2 toxin poses a great threat to human health because it has the highest toxicity of the currently known trichothecene mycotoxins. To understand the in vivo toxicity and transformation mechanism of T...
Ricin is a potent toxin and potential bioterrorism weapon for which no specific licensed countermeasures are available. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the ricin vaccine RVEc™ in a Phase ...
This study is a Phase 1, escalating, multiple-dose, single-center study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the RVEc vaccine. The two principal hypotheses to be tested are: RVEc ...
Botulism is a severe form of food poisoning caused by bacteria. This bacteria produces several toxins one of which is botulinum toxin A. This toxin causes the symptoms of food poisoning....
This study examines botulinum toxin (BOTOX, or BTX) for the treatment of muscle twitches and spasticity associated with cerebral palsy in children. Botulinum toxin is a naturally occurring...
According to high rate of vaginismus (about 10 percent) which leads to unconsummated marriage (about 1 percent) and low efficacy for conventional treatments such as biofeedback therapy, an...
The purpose of this study is to compare two types of botulinum toxin type A to treat the involuntary muscle contractions in the neck
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Proteins synthesized as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to TETANUS TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. They have neuro-, entero-, and hemotoxic properties, are immunogenic, and include the most potent poisons known. The most commonly used apparently blocks release of ACETYLCHOLINE at cholinergic SYNAPSES.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...