Sulfur mustard causes oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants in muscles, livers, and kidneys of Wistar rats.
Summary of "Sulfur mustard causes oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants in muscles, livers, and kidneys of Wistar rats."
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent with cytotoxic effect and a tight link to oxidative stress (OS). Depletion of antioxidants is considered as a cause of detrimental consequence and belongs to the important steps leading to cell death. The oxidative injury appearing after SM exposure is not well understood. Nevertheless, identification of the pathological processes would be a good opportunity to establish an efficient therapy. Here, we focused our effort on an estimation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis and apoptotic processes in Wistar rats exposed to 0-160 mg/kg of SM. We assayed antioxidant activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione, metallothionein, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, caspase 3, and glucose in the livers, kidneys, and muscles of the animals. Significant OS, depletion of low-molecular-mass antioxidants, increase in caspase activity, and some other processes related to SM action were determined. Moreover, we infer a principal role of OS in the tested organs.
Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence , Hradec Kralove , Czech Republic.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug and chemical toxicology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22947058
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2012.710629
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted and for greens or animal feed. It was formerly used as an emetic, counter-irritant, and carminative. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Nitrogen Mustard Compounds
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
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