Structure, mechanism and regulation of an artificial microbial ecosystem for vitamin C production.
Summary of "Structure, mechanism and regulation of an artificial microbial ecosystem for vitamin C production."
At present, the modern two-step fermentation process is one of the major approaches for the industrial production of vitamin C. The key step in this process is the conversion of l-sorbose to 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the vitamin C precursor, which is accomplished by an artificial microbial ecosystem consisting of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus megaterium. This review describes current progress in understanding this ecosystem, not only the individual physiological characteristics of the two strains, but also the interactions between them. Special emphasis is placed on recent systems biology studies of the ecosystem. We also discuss the regulation and improvement of this ecosystem, including analysis of the fermentation medium components and genetic engineering and optimum fermentative strategies. Finally, perspectives on the knowledge and engineering of this important artificial microbial ecosystem are discussed.
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University , 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 , China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in microbiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22994289
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1040841X.2012.706250
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Vitamin D Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Vitamin K 1
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
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