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As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.
Oxford University Hospitals, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX3 9DU, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
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Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
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Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
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