Schwannoma of the median nerve.
Summary of "Schwannoma of the median nerve."
Abstract A schwannoma is a benign tumour of Schwann cells that presents as a palpable and painless mass on the volar aspect of the hand and wrist. A 44-year-old, right-handed woman, presented for a volar swelling of her right hand. On examination she had a non-pulsatile mass with no fluctuation at the radiopalmar aspect of the right hand, and a soft mass on the volar aspect of the right palm. There was no pain on palpation. An excisional biopsy specimen showed an encapsulated and extrafascicular tumour that originated in the median nerve fascicules. Histological examination showed a median nerve schwannoma measuring 4.0 x 1.5 x 1.2 cm. Differential diagnosis of hand tumours is divided into three categories: tumours of the soft tissue, bone, and skin. Schwannomas of the median nerve make up 0.1%-0.3% of all hand tumours. Symptoms are caused by an entrapment syndrome resulting from the growing tumour. Pain is the most common complaint of schwannomas distal to the wrist. Imaging studies include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is difficult to differentiate schwanommas from neurofibromas solely on the basis of an MRI. Neurofibroma grows intraneurally and infiltrates the nerve; it has the potential to require resection of all or part of the nerve, leaving a consequent functional deficit. Tumours of the hand are diagnostically challenging and median nerve shwannomas are rare.
Division of Plastic Surgery, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l'Université de Montréal , Montreal, Quebec , Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23190021
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/2000656X.2012.733168
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).
Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)
Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.