Sickle-cell disease and malaria: evaluation of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Senegalese patients-a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Summary of "Sickle-cell disease and malaria: evaluation of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Senegalese patients-a randomized placebo-controlled trial."
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) patients are at high risk of developing malaria which is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in this disease. In Senegal, malaria transmission is high during rainy season, between July and October, and it was noted that sickle-cell crisis are frequent during this period. Then we carried out a double-blind randomized controlled trial to compare the impact of monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during the high-transmission season versus placebo on malaria incidence and morbidity of sickle-cell anemia. Sixty (60) SCD patients were randomized either to receive three intermittent preventive treatment (ITP) with SP or placebo using the random permutation table with nine elements. The drug was administrated as follows: sulfadoxine 25 mg/kg and pyrimethamine 1.25 mg/kg and this treatment was given once during the following months: September, October, and November. Overall four episodes of malaria disease were diagnosed, all these cases in the placebo arm. Thus, overall prevalence was 6.6% and there was no other case of malaria in the SP arm during the study period. Parasitological diagnosis confirmed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum in all four cases. No patient death was encountered during the study. SP treatment was well tolerated as only one patient (1.6%) in the SP arm reported pruritis. A significant reduction of patients' complaints (p = 002) and blood requirements (p = 0.001) was noted in the SP group; whereas, no impact was observed on vaso-occlusive crisis and hospitalization occurrence. Malaria prophylaxis by monthly intake of SP during the transmission period of the parasite reduced the prevalence of malaria and was safe in SCD patients leaving in malaria endemic area.
Department of Clinical Hematology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5002, Dakar-Fann, Senegal, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annals of hematology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20694469
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-010-1040-z
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Hemoglobin Sc Disease
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
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