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Type 1 Gaucher disease is currently categorized as non-neuronopathic, although recent studies suggest peripheral neurological manifestations. We report prevalence and incidence data for peripheral neuropathy and associated conditions from a multinational, prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, either untreated or receiving enzyme replacement therapy. The primary outcome parameters were the prevalence and incidence of polyneuropathy, evaluated by standardized assessments of neurological symptoms and signs, and electrophysiological studies. All diagnoses of polyneuropathy were adjudicated centrally. Secondary outcome parameters included the prevalence and incidence of mononeuropathy, other neurological or electrophysiological abnormalities not fulfilling the criteria for a mono- or polyneuropathy and general type 1 Gaucher disease symptoms. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to identify all studies reporting on prevalence and incidence of polyneuropathy in the general population. One hundred and three patients were enrolled [median (range) age: 42 (18-75) years; disease duration: 15 (0-56) years; 52% female]; 14 (13.6%) were untreated and 89 (86.4%) were on enzyme replacement therapy. At baseline, 11 patients [10.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-18.3] were diagnosed with sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy. Two (1.9%; 95%
0.1-7.2) had a mononeuropathy of the ulnar nerve. The 2-year follow-up period revealed another six cases of polyneuropathy (2.9 per 100 person-years; 95%
1.2-6.3). Patients with polyneuropathy were older than those without (P < 0.001). Conditions possibly associated with polyneuropathy were identified in four patients only, being monoclonal gammopathy, vitamin B(1) deficiency, folic acid deficiency, type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, alcohol abuse and exposure to toxins related to profession. The 11 cases of polyneuropathy found at baseline were confirmed during follow-up. According to the literature, the prevalence of polyneuropathy in the general population was estimated between 0.09 and 1.3% and the incidence was estimated between 0.0046 and 0.015 per 100 person-years. Thus, we conclude that the prevalence and incidence of polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease is increased compared with the general population.
1 Academic Medical Centre, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain : a journal of neurology
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A dominantly-inherited ATAXIA first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, DYSARTHRIA, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial FASCICULATIONS. DYSTONIA is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features MUSCULAR ATROPHY and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene that codes gigaxonin protein. The mutations result in disorganization of axonal NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, formation of the characteristic giant axons, and progressive neuropathy. The clinical features of the disease include early-onset progressive peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies often associated with central nervous system involvement (mental retardation, seizures, DYSMETRIA, and CONGENITAL NYSTAGMUS).
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)
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