Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). They play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness. Loss of orexin neurons in humans is associated with narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, further suggesting the particular importance of orexin in the maintenance of the wakefulness state. These findings have encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs targeting orexin receptors as novel medications of sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and insomnia. Indeed, phase III clinical trials were completed last year of suvorexant, a non-selective (dual) antagonist for orexin receptors, for the treatment of primary insomnia, and demonstrate promising results. The New Drug Application (NDA) for suvorexant has been submitted to the US FDA. Thus, the discovery of a critical role played by the orexin system in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness has opened the door of a new era for sleep medicine.
Department of Molecular Neuroscience and Integrative Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: CNS drugs
Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is an endogenous sleep substance, and a series of animal studies reported that PGD2 or PGD2 receptor (DP1) agonists promote sleep, while DP1 antagonists promote wakefulness. This ...
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) are characterized by persistent or recurrent patterns of sleep disturbance related primarily to alterations of the circadian rhythm system or the misalig...
Orexins/hypocretins are two neuropeptides that influence many behaviours, such as feeding, sleep or arousal. Orexin A/hypocretin-1 (OXA) and orexin B/hypocretin-2 (OXB) bind to two metabotropic recept...
Hypocretin, also known as orexin, maintains the vigilance state and regulates various physiological processes, such as arousal, sleep, food intake, energy expenditure, and reward. Previously, we found...
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a substance found in plasma, which increases smooth muscle contraction and mediates platelet aggregation. In addition, it is a monoamine neurotransmitter and...
A specific group of neurons in the brain produces hypocretin, a peptide which has been established as an important regulator of sleep and wakefulness. Activation of these neurons (increase...
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a medication called suvorexant in reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and reducing cocaine cravings or cocaine use.
An angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist has been assessed for its efficacy in neuropathic pain with promising results. A considerable number of patients undergoing surgery unde...
Patients who have sleep disorders may be involved in accidents more frequently than those without. In addition patients who have sleep disoders may have more serious accidents and have inc...
H2-receptor antagonists are the gold standard for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients. Various studies demonstrated superiority of proton pump inhibitors over H2-receptor a...
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several groups of h...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...