Serum Bilirubin and Genes Controlling Bilirubin Concentrations as Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease.
Summary of "Serum Bilirubin and Genes Controlling Bilirubin Concentrations as Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease."
Serum bilirubin has been consistently shown to be inversely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies showed serum bilirubin to be associated with CVD-related factors such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and body mass index. Although the association of serum bilirubin with CVD has been found in both retrospective and prospective studies, less information is available on the role of genes that control bilirubin concentrations and their association with CVD.
In this review, we provide detailed information on the identity of the major genes that control bilirubin concentrations and their association with serum bilirubin concentrations and CVD risk. We also update the results of the major studies that have been performed on the association between serum bilirubin, CVD, and CVD-related diseases such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Studies consistently indicate that bilirubin concentrations are inversely associated with different types of CVD and CVD-related diseases. A conditional linkage study indicates that UGT1A1 is the major gene controlling serum bilirubin concentrations, and this finding has been confirmed in recent genomewide association studies. Studies also indicate that individuals homozygous for UGT1A1*28 have a significantly lower risk of developing CVD than carriers of the wild-type alleles.
Serum bilirubin has a protective effect on CVD and CVD-related diseases, and UGT1A1 is the major gene controlling serum bilirubin concentrations. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or genetic interventions that increase serum bilirubin concentrations could provide more direct evidence on the role of bilirubin in CVD prevention.
Office of Biostatistics Research, Division of Cardiovascular Science, National Heart, Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical chemistry
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20693308
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2010.151043
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
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