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Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed.
Biotechnology Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant cell reports
Transcatheter Interventions in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Surveys from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions to identify current patterns of care and perception on training requirements.
Interventional catheterization is central to the care of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD). Current standards for care provision and training in ACHD intervention are lacking. We sought to e...
New strategies for metabolic engineering of extremely thermophilic microorganisms to produce bio-based fuels and chemicals could leverage pathways and physiological features resident in extreme thermo...
The growing incidence and prevalence of unhealthy living behaviors leading to compromised health, along with unhealthy supportive environments, are the primary reasons for the current chronic disease ...
Aim: to collect further information on issues related to tobacco control which should be addressed and advocated in further tobacco control measures in Hong Kong The objectives of this po...
Current study is the fourth wave of the policy-related survey on tobacco control in Hong Kong. It aims to investigate the level of public support on current and future tobacco control meas...
Biomedical and biotechnology industry is internationally regarded as the most brilliant star performer of the future. The development of biomedical depends on a high quality academic resea...
It is anticipated that the use of tissue oxygen monitoring to measure brain tissue oxygen and deltoid muscle oxygen will provide more precise information about focal brain ischemia and sys...
The purpose of this research is to obtain ovarian tissue from female participants who will receive therapy which is expected to result in a loss or impairment of ovarian function and/or in...
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Works about clinical studies in which participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Antibodies Antisense Assays Biochips Bioinformatics Biological Therapy Biomarkers Biomaterials Bioscience Cell Culture Cloning Cytokine Diagnostics Dna Extraction Dna Sequencing Dna Transform...
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a family of bacteria with resistance to one or more major antibiotics. There are currently 17 different strains of MRSA. Two particular strains, EMRSA15 and EMRSA16 account for 96% of MRSA blood...