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Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed.
Biotechnology Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant cell reports
Alpha-keto (α-keto) acids are used widely in feeds, food additives, pharmaceuticals, and in chemical synthesis processes. Although most α-keto acids are currently produced by chemical synthesis, the...
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large number of the population, and its incidence is showing a growing trend with the increasing life span. OA is the most prevalent joint condition worldwide, and curren...
This review summarizes current data focusing on the peripheral effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 including the regulation of food intake, glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular effects and re...
The purpose of this article is to envision how the clinical practice of aphasia management might be done 10 years in the future. The vision of how an individual clinician's daily tasks are changed is ...
Thailand has come to an epidemiologic transition with decreasing infectious diseases and increasing burden of chronic conditions, including cancer. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among ...
Current study is the fourth wave of the policy-related survey on tobacco control in Hong Kong. It aims to investigate the level of public support on current and future tobacco control meas...
It is anticipated that the use of tissue oxygen monitoring to measure brain tissue oxygen and deltoid muscle oxygen will provide more precise information about focal brain ischemia and sys...
Biomedical and biotechnology industry is internationally regarded as the most brilliant star performer of the future. The development of biomedical depends on a high quality academic resea...
The purpose of this research is to obtain ovarian tissue from female participants who will receive therapy which is expected to result in a loss or impairment of ovarian function and/or in...
The purpose of this study is to optimize the management of patients treated for IFIs (invasive fungal infections) by establishing a real-time, continuous clinical data base that will captu...
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Antibodies Antisense Assays Biochips Bioinformatics Biological Therapy Biomarkers Biomaterials Bioscience Cell Culture Cloning Cytokine Diagnostics Dna Extraction Dna Sequencing Dna Transform...
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a family of bacteria with resistance to one or more major antibiotics. There are currently 17 different strains of MRSA. Two particular strains, EMRSA15 and EMRSA16 account for 96% of MRSA blood...