Serotonergic innervation of the amygdala: targets, receptors, and implications for stress and anxiety.
Summary of "Serotonergic innervation of the amygdala: targets, receptors, and implications for stress and anxiety."
The amygdala is a core component of neural circuits that mediate processing of emotional, particularly anxiety and fear-related stimuli across species. In addition, the nuclear complex plays a key role in the central nervous system stress response, and alterations in amygdala responsivity are found in neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those precipitated or sustained by stressors. Serotonin has been shown to shape and fine-tune neural plasticity in development and adulthood, thereby allowing for network flexibility and adaptive capacity in response to environmental challenges, and is implicated in the modulation of stimulus processing and stress sensitivity in the amygdala. The fact that altered amygdala activity patterns are observed upon pharmacological manipulations of serotonergic transmission, as well as in carriers of genetic variations in serotonin pathway-associated signaling molecules representing risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders, underlines the importance of understanding the role and mode of action of serotonergic transmission in the amygdala for human psychopathology. Here, we present a short overview over organizational principles of the amygdala in rodents, non-human primates and humans, and review findings on the origin, morphology, and targets of serotonergic innervation, the distribution patterns and cellular expression of serotonin receptors, and the consequences of stress and pharmacological manipulations of serotonergic transmission in the amygdala, focusing particularly on the extensively studied basolateral complex and central nucleus.
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Wuerzburg, Koellikerstr. 6, 97070, Wuerzburg, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Histochemistry and cell biology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494464
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-013-1081-1
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
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Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. Some are also effective as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anesthesia adjuvants. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
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