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The amygdala is a core component of neural circuits that mediate processing of emotional, particularly anxiety and fear-related stimuli across species. In addition, the nuclear complex plays a key role in the central nervous system stress response, and alterations in amygdala responsivity are found in neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those precipitated or sustained by stressors. Serotonin has been shown to shape and fine-tune neural plasticity in development and adulthood, thereby allowing for network flexibility and adaptive capacity in response to environmental challenges, and is implicated in the modulation of stimulus processing and stress sensitivity in the amygdala. The fact that altered amygdala activity patterns are observed upon pharmacological manipulations of serotonergic transmission, as well as in carriers of genetic variations in serotonin pathway-associated signaling molecules representing risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders, underlines the importance of understanding the role and mode of action of serotonergic transmission in the amygdala for human psychopathology. Here, we present a short overview over organizational principles of the amygdala in rodents, non-human primates and humans, and review findings on the origin, morphology, and targets of serotonergic innervation, the distribution patterns and cellular expression of serotonin receptors, and the consequences of stress and pharmacological manipulations of serotonergic transmission in the amygdala, focusing particularly on the extensively studied basolateral complex and central nucleus.
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Wuerzburg, Koellikerstr. 6, 97070, Wuerzburg, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Histochemistry and cell biology
Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. While bonobo...
As well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amy...
Social defeat (SD) stress induces social avoidance and anxiety-like phenotypes. Amygdala is recognized as an emotion-related brain region such as fear, aversion and anxiety. It is conceivable to hypot...
Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high level...
The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large-scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been...
Amplitude changes of the N1 and the N1/P2 ERP component in response to different tone intensities have been suggested as a correlative of central serotonergic activity. A strong loudness d...
The purpose of the the study is to determine if PROBIOSTICK® decrease stress and anxiety of people sensible to daily stress.
Current therapies for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) have limited effectiveness. This study measures the efficacy of two different approaches to reducing anxiety and stress. One appr...
The purpose of this study is to assess whether baseline sympathetic innervation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is predictive for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common debilitating disorder that affects many individuals exposed to aversive events. The severity of PTSD symptoms is positively correlated wit...
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. Some are also effective as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anesthesia adjuvants. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...
Anxiety is caused by stress. It is a natural reaction, and is beneficial in helping us deal with tense situations and pressure. It is deterimental when is becomes an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations. The most common types of anxiety di...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...