Sleep homeostasis in the rat is preserved during chronic sleep restriction.
Summary of "Sleep homeostasis in the rat is preserved during chronic sleep restriction."
Sleep is homeostatically regulated in all animal species that have been carefully studied so far. The best characterized marker of sleep homeostasis is slow wave activity (SWA), the EEG power between 0.5 and 4 Hz during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. SWA reflects the accumulation of sleep pressure as a function of duration and/or intensity of prior wake: it increases after spontaneous wake and short-term (3-24 h) sleep deprivation and decreases during sleep. However, recent evidence suggests that during chronic sleep restriction (SR) sleep may be regulated by both allostatic and homeostatic mechanisms. Here, we performed continuous, almost completely artifact-free EEG recordings from frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex in freely moving rats (n = 11) during and after 5 d of SR. During SR, rats were allowed to sleep during the first 4 h of the light period (4S(+)) but not during the following 20 h (20S(-)). During the daily 20S(-) most sleep was prevented, whereas the number of short (<20 s) sleep attempts increased. Low-frequency EEG power (1-6 Hz) in both sleep and wake also increased during 20S(-), most notably in the occipital cortex. In all animals NREM SWA increased above baseline levels during the 4S(+) periods and in post-SR recovery. The SWA increase was more pronounced in frontal cortex, and its magnitude was determined by the efficiency of SR. Analysis of cumulative slow wave energy demonstrated that the loss of SWA during SR was compensated by the end of the second recovery day. Thus, the homeostatic regulation of sleep is preserved under conditions of chronic SR.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53719.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696898
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002570107
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
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