Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.
Summary of "Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens."
Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500mgTPAHskg(-1), much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0mgkg(-1) to 1500mgkg(-1) under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.
Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, MS 6504, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696464
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.06.058
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A genus of newts of the Salamandridae family found in North America in areas east of the 100th meridian. A common species is NOTOPHTHALMUS VIRIDESCENS.
A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by accumulation of inhaled CARBON or coal dust. The disease can progress from asymptomatic anthracosis to massive lung fibrosis. This lung lesion usually occurs in coal miners, but can be seen in urban dwellers and tobacco smokers.
Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
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