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Objective The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a set of five cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: elevated waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and blood pressure; and reduced HDL-cholesterol. The prevalence of the MS is rising worldwide, and is linked to two diagnoses in young women: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods This narrative review focuses on hormonal contraceptive choices available for women in Europe with features of the MS. Results The levonorgestrel-intrauterine system and progestogen-only pills containing desogestrel or levonorgestrel have no significant effects on MS parameters. Combined oestrogen-progestogen methods do not appear to increase waist circumference or the incidence of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS or a history of GDM; their effect on HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides is comparable with that observed in women without the MS, while the effect on blood pressure remains inconclusive. The etonogestrel implant does not affect body weight, triglycerides and blood pressure but mildly reduces insulin sensitivity and HDL-cholesterol in healthy women. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate increases body weight and truncal fat deposition, and lowers glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. Conclusions Low-dose hormonal contraception is safe for many women with the MS, but high-dose progestogens must be avoided.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
This article was published in the following journal.
The study investigates physical, mental and sexual changes in women at the beginning of use or after discontinuation of a combined hormonal contraception. Thirty women were interviewed at least 3 mont...
Data on combined hormonal oral contraceptives' (OCs) effects on metabolic changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been conflicting and were predominantly based on OCs with cyproter...
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A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
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